Wednesday, 24 August 2016

Introduction to Tawheed

Salaamu alaykum brothers and sisters in Islam, I will like to bring to you a very important topic which many Muslims make errors in this time and age, this topic is about nothing but TAWHEED. Therefore, we will  start by defining the term linguistically, then we will define it in the sharee’ah form.


When the Arabs say waahid, ahad and waheed, they mean something that is one. Tawheed has the same root letters as the aforementioned terms that means one, so basically, the “ta-un” infront of “wa-un”, “ha-un” and “dal-un” is making something to be ONE. So Tawheed means knowing Allaah is One, with none like unto Him. Whoever does not acknowledge Allaah in these terms and does not describe Him as being One with no partner or associate does not believe in Tawheed.


We have seen the definition of Tawheed linguistically, but that definition is not sufficient when it comes to the sharee’ah. So what is the definition of Tawheed from the sharee’ah perspective? The shar’i defines Tawheed as believing in Allaah alone as God and Lord and attributing to Him alone all the attributes of Lordship and divinity.
It may be defined as follows: Believing that Allaah is One with no partner or associate in
1.) His Lordship (ruboobiyyah),
2.) Divinity (uloohiyyah)
3.) Names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat).

Since we are not interested in the linguistic definition of Tawheed, rather we are concerned with the sharee’ah definition, we will therefore elaborate on the three categories of tawheed under the sharee’ah definition.

1.      His Lordship (ruboobiyyah):

The oneness of Allaah’s Lordship is the belief that Allah alone has created the universe, that He alone is its Provider and Sustainer, and that He has complete ownership and power over His creation. In other words, Allah is one and unique concerning His actions, such that no creature shares His power in creating and managing the universe. 
Allaah said in the Qur’an:

“Verily, your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He covers the night with the day, chasing it rapidly, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are subjected to His command. Unquestionably, for Him is the creation and the command. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds.” {Quran 7:45}
The oneness of Lordship includes the belief in divine providence (qadr), that all things happen by the decree of Allah. Allah alone has complete and uncontested power in the universe and everything occurs according to His will and wisdom.

Allah said:
“Verily, Allah has power over all things.”{Quran 2:20}


             Divinity (uloohiyyah):

Firstly, the meaning of Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah is to single out Allaah The Almighty and perform acts of worship solely for Him. In other words, the servant must not love, fear or have hope in anyone or anything besides Allaah The Almighty, and must dedicate all acts of worship, such as prayer, Zakaah (obligatory charity), supplication, vowing, and all words and actions that Allaah The Almighty may be pleased with, to Him Alone.

Shirk with relations to Divinity (uloohiyyah)

The scholars maintained that there are different types of Shirk (polytheism) in worshipping Allaah The Almighty:
1- Shirk due to failing to dedicate supplications or rites of sacrifice to Allah The Almighty Alone.
2- Shirk because of failing to make one's sincerity of intention, purpose and will exclusive to Allah The Almighty Alone while doing acts of worship.
3- Shirk because of loving others besides Allaah The Almighty.
4- Shirk because of obeying others besides Allaah The Almighty.

Thus, according to the aforementioned classification, it is possible to say that the pillars of Tawheed Al-’Uloohiyyah are based on:
1- Supplicating and performing acts of sacrifice solely for the Sake of Allaah The Almighty
2- Forming one’s sincere intention, purpose and will solely for Allaah The Almighty
3- Focusing one’s love and allegiance solely for Allaah The Almighty
4- Dedicating acts of obedience exclusively to Allaah The Almighty

The purpose behind mentioning this classification is to clarify and explain the meaning of Tawheed Al-’Uloohiyyah. This meaning is originally derived from the verses in which Allaah The Almighty Says (what means):

• Say, "Is it other than Allaah I should take as a protector, Creator of the heavens and the earth, while it is He who feeds and is not fed?"{Quran 6: 14}
• [Say], "Then is it other than Allaah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?"{Quran 6: 114}
• Say, [O Muhammad], "Indeed, I have been commanded to worship Allaah, [being] sincere to Him in religion.{Quran 39: 11}
• Say, "Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allaah , Lord of the worlds{Quran 6: 162}

3.      Names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat):

With regard to Tawheed al-Asma’ wa’l-Sifaat (Oneness of the Divine Names and Attributes), this means affirming the names and attributes of Allaah and believing that there is none like unto Allaah in His names and attributes. This Tawheed is based on two principles:

1 – Affirmation: i.e., affirming that which Allaah has affirmed for Himself in His Book or that His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has affirmed of His beautiful names and sublime attributes in a manner that suits the Majesty and Greatness of Allaah, without distorting them, twisting their meanings, denying their realities or discussing how they are.

2 – Denial: i.e., denying that Allaah has any faults and denying any shortcomings that He has denied Himself. The evidence for that are the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):
“There is nothing like Him, and He is the All Hearer, the All Seer” {Quran 42:11}.
So here Allah has denied that He bears any resemblance to His creation, and affirmed that He has attributes of perfection in a manner that befits Him, may He be glorified.


Guest author: Anonymous

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